Reishi Mushroom

Reishi Mushroom

Monograph: Reishi Mushroom

Botanical Scientific Name: Ganoderma Lucidum

Chinese Name: Ling Zhi

Japanese Name: Mannentake

One of the most researched mushrooms in the world is the Reishi mushroom.  It has been used for over 2,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine and is the oldest documented mushroom that has been applied in eastern medicine.

The Chinese name Ling zhi, means “spiritual strength and eternal life”. It represents the idea of wonderful heavens expressing long life, eternal life, vitality and good quality of life. This was recorded as long ago as 100-200 years AC since the days of the Han dynasty.  Caesars and noblemen in China and Japan would consume the Reishi mushroom to increase their emotional and mental resilience.  A well-known herbalist in the 16th century named Li Shizhen described it as a plant that raised life expectancy with anti-aging properties.  In Japan the mushroom is called Mannentake which means 10,000-year mushroom.

The mushroom is considered to be adaptogenic, as it has influence on adrenal function and boosts the body’s resistance to stress both mental and physical.

The mushroom has a few strains, which differ in bright colors (red, black, white, blue, and yellowish).  The red Reishi has been the most studied. It is a wide and flat mushroom with a shiny prominent cap, like red lacquer.  It is missing gills underneath and releases its spores through gentle porosity.

The red Reishi grows on the Asian continent, at the base of a wide variety of deciduous trees, and in Canada’s northern and eastern forests, mainly at the base of maple trees.   Similar species of the mushroom grow also in the Amazon Rainforest in Brazil.

Parts of the mushroom for use:

All parts of the mushroom:

  • Mycelium
  • Fruiting Body
  • Spores

Route of Administration:


TCM Characteristics:

Temperature: neutral

Taste: sweet and slightly bitter 

Meridians: heart, liver, lungs (according to some sources, also tropism to the kidneys or spleen)

Bioactive Ingredients:


  • β-d-Glucan
  •  ganoderans A, B, C 

Triterpenes and Triterpenoids:

  • ganoderic acid β
  • lucidumol A
  • ganoderic acid A 
  • methyl ganoderate A
  • methyl ganoderate B 
  • methyl lucidenate A
  • methyl lucidenate F
  • lucidenic acid D2
  • lucidenic acid A
  • lucidenic acid N
  • ganoderic acid DM
  • ganoderic acid A
  • ganoderic acid B
  • ganoderic acid C
  • ganoderic acid E
  • ganoderiol
  • ganodermonondiol 
  • ganosporelactone A
  • ganosporelactone B


  • LZ-8


  • PL-1, PL-2, PL-3, PL-4

Phenolic Compounds:

  • Quercetin
  • Kaempferol


  • Ergosterol


  • Adenosine
  • Guanosine


  • Vitamins from the B-complex family


  • Germanium
  • Potassium
  • Barium
  • Beryllium
  • Calcium
  • Chromium
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Iron
  • Molybdenum
  • Phosphorus
  • Zinc
  • Strontium
  • Sodium

Fatty Acids:

  • Oleic acid
  • Linoleic acid
  • Palmitic acid
  • Palmitoleic acid
  • Lignoceric acid
  • Stearic acid
  • Behenic acid
  • Erucic acid
  • Cis-11-Eisosenoic acid
  • Cis-13,16-Docosadienoic acid
  • 5,8,11,14,17-Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

Amino Acids:

  • Cysteic acid
  • Aspartic acid
  • Methionine
  • Threonine
  • Serine
  • Glutamic acid
  • Proline
  • Glycine
  • Alanine
  • Valine
  • Isoleucine
  • Leucine
  • Tyrosine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Lysine
  • Histidine
  • Arginine

Studied Activities:

Adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiaging, immunomodulatory (balances the immune system), anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive (balances blood pressure), hepatoprotective (restores and protects the liver), neuroprotective (balances and restores the nervous system), support of prostate function, balances the thyroid, antiplatelet, anti-anemia, and prebiotic.

Uses supported by clinical research:

Weakened immune system, allergy, hay fever, viral and bacterial infections, cancer, stress, anxiety, depression, migraines, type II diabetes, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia (excess of blood lipids), high blood pressure, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), hepatitis, fatty liver, fibromyalgia, excessive blood coagulation, Alzheimer’s disease, and anemia.

Traditional uses that have yet to be supported by clinical evidence:

Insomnia, autoimmune diseases, Hashimoto’s disease (autoimmune hypothyroid), Grave’s disease (autoimmune hyperthyroid), ADHD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), kidney failure, coughing, asthma, and COPD.

Effects according to Traditional Chinese Medicine:

Replenishes the Qi and nourishes the blood.

Strengthens the Qi and the blood of the heart, nourishes the heart and calms the Shen.

Transforms mucus and stops cough.

Calm the soul and stimulates awareness and reason.

strengthens the kidney essence.

Manners of use and recommended dosages per the literature:

Liquid extract (tincture): at a concentration of 1:3, 45% alcohol, 2-10 ml per day.

Dry extract: standardized extract 5:1 at a concentration of 10% polysaccharides, 200-3,000 mg per day.

Decoction: 1-10 grams per day.

As part of a formula: 25-40%

Safety, Toxicity, Interactions, and Side Effects:

The Reishi mushroom is safe to use.

It is advised not to exceed 6 grams of dried Reishi extract per day.

People allergic to mushrooms should avoid eating the mushroom or consuming the mushroom as a food supplement.

Due to its immunostimulant activity, transplant patients should not consume the mushroom.

Seven days before undergoing a surgical procedure, the use of the mushroom should be discontinued and may be resumed two days following the procedure.

Since the mushroom may prolong the duration of clotting indexes INR, PT, PTT, and APTT, it is recommended to exercise caution when consuming Reishi with anti-coagulant blood thinners from the Coumadin, Clexane, Xarelto, Eliquis, Pradaxa and Lixiana families.

In in-vitro laboratory studies the polysaccharides in the Reishi mushroom delayed enzymes CYP3A, CYP1A2, CYP2E1 in cytochrome P450 of the liver, which are activated by the drugs Nifedipine, Phenacetin, and Chlorzoxazone, and the concentration of metabolites of drugs that metabolize in these ways may be affected, however, there have not been any clinical trials on this subject so the clinical significance of these findings is unclear.

Reishi mushroom oftentimes may raise the level of the glycoprotein marker CA72-4, which is frequently expressed by types of cancer such as gastrointestinal, ovarian, endometrium, and lung.

With the exception of forbidding pregnant women who receive blood thinners such as Clexane to use the mushroom, there is lack of data to support the safety of use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Stop use if hypersensitivity/allergy occurs.

TCM – relief of cough: Consult a health care practitioner / health care provider / health care professional / doctor / physician if symptoms persist or worsen.


  1. Sissi Wachtel-Galor, John Yuen, John A. Buswell, and Iris F. F. Benzie. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Chapter 9Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi). A Medicinal Mushroom.
  2. Albers R, Antoine JM, Bourdet-Sicard R, Calder PC, Gleeson M, Lesourd B, Samartín S, Sanderson IR, Van Loo J, Vas Dias FW, Watzl B. Markers to measure immunomodulation in human nutrition intervention studies. British Journal of Nutrition 2005;94(3):452-481.
  3. Belanger CA. The Chinese Herb Selection Guide: A Traditional and Modern Clinical Repertory with a Summary Materia Medica for the Health Care Practitioner. Richmond (CA): Phytotech Database Publishing Co.; 1997.
  4. Bensky D, Clavey S, Stöger E, Gamble A, editors. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. 3rd edition. Seattle (WA): Eastland Press Inc; 2004.
  5. CABI 2012: Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International. Index Fungorum [Internet]. Wallingford (GB): CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International); 2012. [Accessed 2012 April 24]. Available from:
  6. Chen JK, Chen TT. Chinese Medical Herbology and Pharmacology. Crampton L, editor. City of Industry (CA): Art of Medicine Press Inc.; 2004.
  7. Chu TT, Benzie IF, Lam CW, Fok BS, Lee KK, Tomlinson B. Study of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trial. British Journal of Nutrition 2012;7(7):1017-1027.
  8. derMarderosian A, Beutler JA, editors. The Review of Natural Products. “Reishi Mushroom: Date of Issue August 2008” St Louis (MO): Facts and Comparisons, Wolters Kluwer Health; Printed in 2008 and Updated to May 2012.
  9. Flynn R. Roest M. Your Guide To Standardized Herbal Products. Prescott (AZ): One World Press; 1995.
  10. Gao Y, Dai X, Chen G, Ye J, Zhou S. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphylloromycetidae) polysaccharides (Ganopoly R) in patients with advanced lung cancer. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2003;5(4):369-381.
  11. Gao Y, Zhou SH, Chen G, Dai X, Ye J. A phase I/II study of a Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. Extract (ganopoly) in patients with advanced cancer. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2002;4(3):207-214.
  12. Godfrey A, Saunders PR, Barlow K, Gilbert C, Gowan M, Smith F. Principles and Practices of Naturopathic Botanical Medicine. Volume 1: Botanical Medicine Monographs. Toronto (ON): CCNM Press; 2010.
  13. Hobbs C. Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, Healing & Culture. Summertown (TN): Book Publishing Company; 2003.
  14. Hoffmann D. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press; 2003.
  15. Hsu HY, Chen YP, Shen SJ, Hsu CS, Chen CC, Chang HC. Oriental Materia Medica: a concise guide. Long Beach (CA): Oriental Healing Arts Institute; 1986. P. 640-641.
  16. Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. Second edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1999.
  17. Ko KM, Leung HY. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs. Chinese Medicine 2007;27;2(3): (doi:10.1186/1749-8546-2-3).
  18. Leung, AY, Foster, S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. Second edition. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003.
  19. Lin ZB. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of immuno-modulation by Ganoderma lucidum. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 2005;99(2):144-153.
  20. Matsumoto K. The mysterious reishi mushroom. Santa Barbara (CA): Wood bridge Press Publishing; 1979. p. 31-42.
  21. McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, editors. Herbs of Commerce, 2nd edition. Silver Spring (MD): American Herbal Products Association; 2000.
  22. Peirce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York (NY): William Morrow and Company Inc.; 1999.
  23. PPRC 2010: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China 2010. Volume I. Beijing (PRC): Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission; 2010.
  24. Saunders PR. Reishi. In: Chandler F, Bombardier C, Briggs C, Carruthers SG, McCutcheon AR, Saleh A, Saunders PR, editors. Herbs: Everyday Reference for Health Professionals. Ottawa (ON): Canadian National Printers; 2000. p. 181-184.
  25. Upton R, editor. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium: Reishi Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum: Standards of Analysis, Quality Control, and Therapeutics. Santa Cruz (CA): American Herbal Pharmacopoeia; 2000.
  26. Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF. Ganoderma lucidum (“Lingzhi”), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. British Journal of Nutrition 2004;91(2),263-269.
  27. Wachtel-Galor S, Yuen J, Buswell JA, Benzie IFF. Chapter 9 Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi): A Medicinal Mushroom. In: Benzie IFF, Wachtel-Galor S, editors. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2011.
  28. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 2002;60(3):258-274.
  29. Wicks SM, Tong R, Wang CZ, O’Connor M, Karrison T, Li S, Moss J, Yuan CS. Safety and tolerability of Ganoderma lucidum in healthy subjects: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2007;35(3):407-414.
  30. Yarnell E. Abascal K. Hooper CG. Clinical Botanical Medicine. Larchmont (NY): Mary Ann Liebert Inc.; 2003.
  31. Aydin S, Aytac E, Uzun H, Altug T, Mansur B, Saygili S, Buyukpinarbasili N, Sariyar M. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on obstructive jaundice-induced oxidative stress. Asian Journal of Surgery 2010;33(4):173-180.
  32. Bao X, Liu C, Fang J, Li X. Structural and immunological studies of a major polysaccharide from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. Carbohydrate Research 2001;332(1):67-74.
  33. Bisby FA, Roskov YR, Orrell TM, Nicolson D, Paglinawan LE, Bailly N, Kirk PM, Bourgoin T, Baillargeon G, Ouvrard D, editors. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 30th April 2012 [Internet]. Reading (GB): Species 2010. [Source database Species Fungorum, 9.0, Sep 2010; Accessed 2012 May 22]. Available from:
  34. Brinker 2010: Brinker F. Final updates and additions for Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd edition, including extensive Appendices addressing common problematic conditions, medications and nutritional supplements, and influences on Phase I, II & III metabolism with new appendix on botanicals as complementary adjuncts with drugs. [Internet]. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications. [Updated July 13, 2010; Accessed 2012 April 19]. Available from:
  35. Brinker F. Herbal Contraindications and Drug Interactions: Plus Herbal Adjuncts With Medicines, expanded 4th Edition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2010.
  36. Calvino E, Manjon JL, Sancho P, Tejedor MC, Herraez A, Diez JC. Ganoderma lucidum induced apoptosis in NB4 human leukemia cells: involvement of Akt and Erk. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2010;120(1):71-78.
  37. Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DMY. The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells. Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2009;(2):25.
  38. Chan WK, Cheung CCH, Law HKW, Lau YL, Chan GC. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function. Journal of Hematology & Oncology 2008;(1):9.
  39. Chang HM, But PPH, editors. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica. Singapore (SG): World Scientific Publishing Co.; 1986.
  40. Chang ST, Miles P. Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2004.
  41. Chang YH, Yang JS, Yang JL, Wu CL, Chang SJ, Lu KW, Lin JJ, Hsia TC, Lin YT, Ho CC, Wood WG, Chung JG. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibited leukemia WEHI-3 cells in BALB/c mice and promoted an immune response in vivo. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 2009;73(12):2589-2594.
  42. Chen AW, Miles PG. Biomedical research and the application of mushroom nutraceuticals from Ganoderma lucidum. In: Royse DJ, editor. Mushroom biology and mushroom products. 1996: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on mushroom biology and mushroom products; 1996 Jun 9-12; University Park. University Park; Penn State University; 1996. p. 161-170.
  43. Chen WC, Hau DM. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-irradiated mice. Phytotherapy Research 1995;9(7):533-535.
  44. Cheng Z, Wang J, Shao Y, Liang Z, Ning Y, Bai Z, Dong S, Ye YV, Mori M. 1993. Effects of ling zhi on hemorrheology parameters and symptoms of hypertension patients with hyperlipidemia and sequelae of cerebral thrombosis. In: Zhu S, Mori M, editors. The research on Ganoderma lucidum (part one), Volume 1, pp 339-342. Shanghai: Shanghai Med University.
  45. Cherian E, Sudheesh NP, Janardhanan KK, Patani G. Free-radical scavenging and mitochondrial antioxidant activities of Reishi-Ganoderma lucidum (Curt: Fr) P. Karst and Arogyapacha-Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn extracts. Journal of basic and clinical physiology and pharmacology 2009;20(4):289-307.
  46. Chu TT, Benzie IF, Lam CW, Fok BS, Lee KK, Tomlinson B. Study of potential cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi): results of a controlled human intervention trial. British Journal of Nutrition 2011;1:1-11. [Epub ahead of print].
  47. Cutten AE, Hasnain SM, Segedin BP, Bai TR, McKay EJ. The basidiomycete ganoderma and asthma: collection, quantitation and immunogenicity of the spores. The New Zealand Medical Journal 1988;101(847 Pt 1):361-363.
  48. Duke JA, Godwin MJB, duCellier J, Duke PAK. Hand Book of Medicinal Herbs. 2nd edition: CRC Press LLC; 2002.
  49. Folkers K, Langsjoen P, Willis R, Richardson P, Xia LJ, Ye CQ, Tamagawa H. Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans. Proceedings of National Academy of Science 1990;87(22):8931-8934.
  50. Galor WS, Szeto YT, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF. Ganoderma lucidum (‘Lingzhi’); acute and short-term biomarker response to supplementation. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition 2004;55(1):75-83.
  51. Galor WS, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF. Ganoderma lucidum (“Lingzhi”), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses in a controlled human supplementation study. British Journal of Nutrition 2004;91(2):263-269.
  52. Gao Y, Lan J, Dai X, Ye J, Zhou SH. A phase I/II study of Ling Zhi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. (W. Curt.: Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) extract in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2004;6(1):33-39.
  53. Gao Y, Zhou S, Chen G, Dai X, Ye J, Gao H. A phase I/II study of a Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P.Karst. (Ling Zhi, Reishi mushroom) extract in patients with chronic hepatitis B. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2000;4(4):2321-2327.
  54. Gao Y, Zhou S. The immunomodulating effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P.Karst (LingZhi, Reishi Mushroom) (Aphylloromycetidae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2002;2(4):1-11.
  55. Gao Y, Zhou SH, Huang M, Xu A. Antibacterial and antiviral value of the genus Ganoderma P. Karst. Species (Aphyllophoromycetideae): a review. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2003;5(3):235-246.
  56. Gau JP, Lin CK, Lee SS, Wang SR. The lack of antiplatelet effect of crude extracts from Ganoderma lucidum on HIV-positive hemophiliacs. American Journal of Clinical Medicine 1990;18(3-4):175-179.
  57. Hajjaj H, Mace C, Roberts M, Niederberger P, Fay LB. Effect of 26-oxygenosterols from Ganoderma lucidum and their activity as cholesterol synthesis inhibitors. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2005;71(7):3653-3658.
  58. Hikino H, Mizuno T. Hypoglycemic actions of some heteroglycans of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Planta Medica 1989;55(4):385.
  59. Hsu MJ, Lee SS, Lee ST, Lin WW. Signaling mechanisms of enhanced neutrophil phagocytosis and chemotaxis by the polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum. British Journal of Pharmacology 2003;139(2):289-298.
  60. Hsu TL, Cheng SC, Yang WB, Chin SW, Chen BH, Huang MT, Hsieh SL, Wong CH. Profiling Carbohydrate-Receptor Interaction with Recombinant Innate Immunity Receptor-Fc Fusion Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry 2009;284(50):34479-34489.
  61. Huie CW, Di X. Chromatographic and electrophoretic methods for Lingzhi pharmacologically active components. Journal of Chromatography B 2004;812(1-2):241-257.
  62. Hus HY, Lian SL, Lin CC. Radioprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss ex Fr) Karst after X-ray irradiation in mice. American Journal of Clinical Medicine 1990;18(1-2):61-69.
  63. Jan RH, Lin TY, Hsu YC, Lee SS, Lo1 SY, Chang M, Chen LK, Lin YL. Immuno-modulatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysaccharide on human monocytoid dendritic cells pulsed with Der p 1 allergen. BMC Immunology 2011;12(31):1-10.
  64. Jiang J, Slivova V, Sliva D. Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells by down-regulation of estrogen receptor and NF-kappaB signaling. International Journal of Oncology 2006;29(3):695-703.
  65. Jin H, Zhang G, Cao X, Zhang M, Long J, Luo B, Chen H, Qian S, Mori M, Wang Z. Treatment of Hypertension by Linzhi Combined with Hypotensor and Its Effects on Arterial, Arteriolar and Capillary Pressure Microcirculation, in Microcirculatory Approach to Asian Traditional Medicine: Strategy for the Scientific Evaluation. Excerpta Medica, International Congress Series Elsevier: Amsterdam, NY; 1996. p. 131-138.
  66. Jong SC, Birmingham JM. Medicinal benefits of the mushroom Ganoderma. Advances in Applied Microbiology 1992;37:101-134.
  67. Joseph S, Sabulal B, George V, Simina TP, Janardhanan KK. Antioxidative and antiinflammatory activities of the chloroform extract of Ganoderma lucidum found in South India. Scientia Pharmaceutica 2009;77:111-121.
  68. Karaman MA, Dukic MNM, Matavulj MN. Lignicolous fungi as potential natural sources of antioxidants. Archives of Biological Sciences 2005;57(2):93-100.
  69. Kawagishi H, Fukuhara F, Sazuka M, Kawasima A, Mistsubori T, Tomita T. 5’deoxy-5′-methylsulphinyladenosine, a platelet aggregation inhibitor from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry 1993;32(2):239-241.
  70. Kim DH, Shim SB, Kim NJ, Jang IS. Beta-glucuronidase inhibitory activity and hepatoprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1999;22(2):162-164.
  71. Kim HS, Kacew S, Lee BM. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Coriolus versicolor). Carcinogenesis 1999;20(8):1637-1640.
  72. Kupin V. A new biological response modifier Ganoderma lucidum and its application in oncology. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Ganoderma lucidum; 1992 June 10; Seoul, Place of publication unavailable: Cancer Res Ctr; 1992. p. 49-50.
  73. Kupin, V. (1994) A new biological response modifier – ganoderma lucidum – and its application in oncology. In Proceedings from the 6th international symposium on ganoderma lucidum. Seoul, II Yang, p.36-37.
  74. Lee JM, Kwon H, Jeong H, Lee JW, Lee SY, Baek SJ, Surh YJ. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage by Ganoderma lucidum. Phytotherapy Research 2001;15(3):245-249.
  75. Lei LS, Lin ZB. Effect of ganoderma polysaccharides on T cell subpopulations and production of interleukin-2 in mixed lymphocyte response. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1993;28(8):577-582.
  76. Lei LS, Lin ZB. Effects of ganoderma polysaccharides on T cell subpopulations and production of interleukin-2 in mixed lymphocytes response. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1992;27(5):331-335.
  77. Li F, Zhang Y, Zhong Z. Anti-hyperglycemic effect of Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, International Journal of Molecular Science 2011;12(9):6135-6145.
  78. Lieu CW, Lee SS, Wang SY. The effect of Ganoderma lucidum in induction of differentiation in leukemic U937 cells. Anticancer Research 1992;12(4):1211-1215.
  79. Lin JM, Lin CC, Chen MF, Ujie T, Takada A. Radical scavenger and hepatotoxic activity of ganoderma formosamum, Ganoderma lucidum, and Ganoderma neo-japonicum. Journal of Ethnophamacology 1995;47(1):33-41.
  80. Lin JM, Lin CC, Chiu HF, Yang JJ, Lee SG. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver protective effects of Anoetochilus formosanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats. American Journal of Clinical Medicine 1993;21(1):59-69.
  81. Lin ZB, Wang MY, Liu Q, Che QM. Effects of Total Triterpenoids Extract from Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Reishi Mushroom) on Experimental Liver Injury Models Induced by Carbon Tetrachloride or D-Galactosamine in Mice. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2002;4(4):112-118.
  82. Liu B, Bau YS. Fungi Pharmacopoeia (Sinica). Oakland (CA): Kinoko; 1994.
  83. Liu C, Tseng A, Yang S. Chinese Herbal Medicine. Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press; 2005.
  84. Liu G, Bao T, Niu X, Li S, Sung Z. Some pharmacological action of the species of Ganoderma lucidum and the mycelium of Ganoderma capense (Lloyd) Teng cultivated by submerged fermentation. Chinese Medical Journal 1979;92(7):496-500.
  85. Liu G, Bao T, Wei HL, Zong ZY. Some pharmacological actions of Ganoderma lucidum and G. japonicum (FR) Lioyd on mouse liver. Yao Hsueh Pao 1979;14(5):284-287.
  86. Liu J, Kurashiki K, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Structure-activity relationship for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase by triterpenoids isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 2006;14:8654-8660.
  87. Lu ZW, and Lin ZB. Antagonistic effect of ganoderma polysaccharides peptide on inhibition of immune response caused by repetitive in vivo treatments of morphine. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on ganoderma research; 1994(b) Oct 24-24; Beijing, Beijing Med Univ; 1994. p. 82-84.
  88. Luu B. Chemistry and biology of oxysterol and oxytriterpenes. In: Proceedings of the 4th international symposium on Ganoderma lucidum; 1992 June 10; Seoul, Cancer Research Ctr; 1992. p. 36-37.
  89. Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry 2002;50(21):6072-6077.
  90. Mekkaway SRE, Meselhy M, Nakamura N, Tezuka Y, Hattori M, Kakiuchi N, Shimotohno K, Kawahata T, Otake T. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-protease substances from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry 1998;49(6):1651-1657.
  91. Min BS, Nakamura N, Miyashiro H, Bae KW, Hattori M. Triterpenes from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum and their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1998;46(10):1607-1612.
  92. Mizuno T, Wang G, Zhang J, Kawagishi H, Nishitoba T, Li J. Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae: Bioactive substances and medicinal effects. Food Rev. Intern 1995;11:151-166.
  93. Mohammed A, Adelaiye1, AB, Abubakar MS, Abdurahman EM. Effects of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum on blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2007;1(2):34-37.
  94. Muller CI, Takashi K, James O, Navindra P, Seeram DH, Koeffler HP. Ganoderma lucidum causes apoptosis in leukemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma cells. Leukemia Research 2006;30(7):841-848.
  95. Pieper KK, Patil SP, Busse P, Yang N, Sampson H, Li XM, Wisnivesky JP, Kattan M. Safety and Tolerability of an Antiasthma Herbal Formula (ASHMI™) in Adult Subjects with Asthma: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Phase I Study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2009;15(7):735-743.
  96. Qing BW, Lin SL. Li SS, Shu QY. Effect of Ganoderma polysaccharides on IL-2 and IL-3 mRNA expressions in murine splenocytes in vitro. Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin 1998;14(4):342-344.
  97. Reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) Natural Standard Professional Monograph, Copyright © 2012 [Internet]. [Accessed 2012 July 18]. Available from:
  98. Russell R, Paterson M. Ganoderma – A therapeutic fungal biofactory. Phytochemistry 2006;67(18):1985-2001.
  99. Sato N, Zhang Q, Ma CM, Hattori M. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease activity of new lanosane-type triterpenoids from Ganoderma sinense. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 2009;57(10):1076-1080.
  100. Shang D, Li Y, Wang C, Wang X, Yu Z, Fu X. A novel polysaccharide from Se-enriched Ganoderma lucidum induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Oncology Reports 2011;25(1):267-272.
  101. Shiao MS, Lee KR, Lin LJ, Wang CT. Natural products and biological activities of the Chinese medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum. In: Ho CT, Osawa T, Huang MT, Rosen RT, editors. Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention II, pp. 342-354. New Jersey (NJ): American Chemical Society; 1994.
  102. Su CH, Lai MN, Chan MH. Hepatoprotective trepenoids from Ganoderma tsugae Murill. In: Chang ST, Busweii JA, Chiu SW, editors. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, Hong Kong (HK): Chinese University press; 1993. p. 275-283.
  103. Su CY, Shiao MS, Wang CT. Differential effects of ganoderic acid S on the thromboxane A2-signaling pathways in human platelets. Biochemical Pharmacology 1999;58(4):587-595.
  104. Tang W, Gao Y, Chen G, Gao H, Dai X, Ye J, Chan E, Huang M, Zhou S. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract in neurasthenia. Journal of Medicinal Food 2005;8(1):53-58.
  105. Tao J, Feng KY. Experimental and clinical studies of Ganoderma lucidum on platelet aggregation. Journal of Tongji Medical University 1990;10(4):240-243.
  106. Tierra M. The Way of Herbs. New York (NY): Pocket Books; 1998.
  107. Tomoda M, Gonda R, Kasahara Y, Hakino H. Glycan structures of ganoderans B and C, hypoglycemic glycans of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies. Phytochemistry 1986;25(12):2817-2820.
  108. Tran MT, Mitchell TM, Kennedy DT, Giles JT. Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21(7):797-806.
  109. Wang C, Zheng YH. A new kind of preparation of Ganoderma lucidum in treating 35 patients with coronary cardiac disease. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on ganoderma research; 1994 Oct 24-26; Beijing, China. Beijing Med University; 1994. p. 85-86.
  110. Wang G, Zhao J, Liu J, Huang Y, Zhong JJ, Tang W. Enhancement of IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression and NK cells activity involved in the anti-tumor effect of ganoderic acid Me in vivo. International Immunopharmacology 2007;7:864-870.
  111. Wang MY, Liu Q, Che QM, Lin ZB. Effects of total triterpenoids extract from Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. (Reishi Mushroom) on experimental liver injury models induced by carbon tetrachloride or d-galactosamine in mice. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms 2002;4(4):337-342.
  112. Wang SY, Hsu ML, Hsu HC, Tzeng CH, Lee SS, Shiao MS, Ho CK. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. International Journal of Cancer 1997;70(6):699-705.
  113. Weant KA, Smith KM. The role of coenzyme Q10 in heart failure. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2005;39(9):1522-1526.
  114. Weng CJ, Chau CF, Yen GC, Liao JW, Chen DH, Chen KD. Inhibitory effects of ganoderma lucidum on tumorigenesis and metastasis of human hepatoma cells in cells and animal models. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009;57(11):5049-5057.
  115. Wu Y, Wang D. A new class of natural glycopeptides with sugar moiety-dependent antioxidant activities derived from Ganoderma lucidum fruiting bodies. Journal of Proteome Research 2009;8(2):436-442.
  116. Xiao JJ, Lei LS, Zhao X, Lin ZB. Changes of nuclear DNA, RNA contents and ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm of murine splenocytes induced by Ganoderma lucidum. Chinese Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 1994;8(3):198.
  117. Yang HL. Ganoderic acid produced from submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum induces cell cycle arrest and cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cell line BEL7402. Biotechnology Letters 2005;27(12):835-838.
  118. Yeung HC. Handbook of Chinese Herbs. Rosemead (CA): Institute of Chinese Medicine; 1996.
  119. Zhang LX, Mong H, Zhou HB. Effect of Japanese Ganoderma lucidum on production of interleukin-2 from murine splenocytes. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1993;13(10):613-615.
  120. Zhu M, Chang Q, Wong LK, Chong FS, Li RC. Triterpene antioxidants from Ganoderma lucidum. Phytotherapy Research 1999;13(6):529-531.
  121. Zhu M, Lin KF, Yeung RY, Li RC. Evaluation of the protective effects of Schisandra chinensis on phase 1 drug metabolism using a CCl4 intoxication model. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1999(b);67(1):61-68.

You may also like View all